ConnectorDB includes special queries optimized for generating datasets from the time series data associated with streams. There are 2 main query types:
- Puts together multiple streams into one combined stream
- Takes multiple streams and uses their time series to generate tabular data ready for use in plotting and ML applications.
Merge represents a query which allows to merge multiple streams into one when reading, with all the streams merged together by increasing timestamp. The merge query is used as a constructor-type object:
m = Merge(cdb) m.addStream("mystream1",t1=time.time()-10) m.addStream("mystream2",t1=time.time()-10) result = m.run()
addStream(stream, t1=None, t2=None, limit=None, i1=None, i2=None, transform=None)¶
Adds the given stream to the query construction. The function supports both stream names and Stream objects.
Runs the merge query, and returns the result
Dataset(cdb, x=None, t1=None, t2=None, dt=None, limit=None, i1=None, i2=None, transform=None, posttransform=None)¶
ConnectorDB is capable of taking several separate unrelated streams, and based upon the chosen interpolation method, putting them all together to generate tabular data centered about either another stream’s datapoints, or based upon time intervals.
The underlying issue that Datasets solve is that in ConnectorDB, streams are inherently unrelated. In most data stores, such as standard relational (SQL) databases, and even excel spreadsheets, data is in tabular form. That is, if we have measurements of temperature in our house and our mood, we have a table:
Mood Rating Room Temperature (F) 7 73 3 84 5 79
The benefit of having such a table is that it is easy to perform data analysis. You know which temperature value corresponds to which mood rating. The downside of having such tables is that Mood Rating and Room Temperature must be directly related - a temperature measurement must be made each time a mood rating is given. ConnectorDB has no such restrictions. Mood Rating and Room Temperature can be entirely separate sensors, which update data at their own rate. In ConnectorDB, each stream can be inserted with any timestamp, and without regard for any other streams.
This separation of Streams makes data require some preprocessing and interpolation before it can be used for analysis. This is the purpose of the Dataset query. ConnectorDB can put several streams together based upon chosen transforms and interpolators, returning a tabular structure which can readily be used for ML and statistical applications.
There are two types of dataset queries
T-Dataset: A dataset query which is generated based upon a time range. That is, you choose a time range and a time difference between elements of the dataset, and that is used to generate your dataset.
Timestamp Room Temperature (F) 1pm 73 4pm 84 8pm 79
If I were to generate a T-dataset from 12pm to 8pm with dt=2 hours, using the interpolator “closest”, I would get the following result:
Timestamp Room Temperature (F) 12pm 73 2pm 73 4pm 84 6pm 84 8pm 79
The “closest” interpolator happens to return the datapoint closest to the given timestamp. There are many interpolators to choose from (described later).
Hint: T-Datasets can be useful for plotting data (such as daily or weekly averages).
X-datasets allow to generate datasets based not on evenly spaced timestamps, but based upon a stream’s values
Suppose you have the following data:
Timestamp Mood Rating Timestamp Room Temperature (F) 1pm 7 2pm 73 4pm 3 5pm 84 11pm 5 8pm 81 11pm 79
An X-dataset with X=Mood Rating, and the interpolator “closest” on Room Temperature would generate:
Mood Rating Room Temperature (F) 7 73 3 84 5 79 Interpolators:
Interpolators are special functions which specify how exactly the data is supposed to be combined into a dataset. There are several interpolators, such as “before”, “after”, “closest” which work on any type of datapoint, and there are more advanced interpolators which require a certain datatype such as the “sum” or “average” interpolator (which require numerical type).
In order to get detailed documentation on the exact interpolators that the version of ConnectorDB you are are connected to supports, you can do the following:
cdb = connectordb.ConnectorDB(apikey) info = cdb.info() # Prints out all the supported interpolators and their associated documentation print info["interpolators"]
__init__(cdb, x=None, t1=None, t2=None, dt=None, limit=None, i1=None, i2=None, transform=None, posttransform=None)¶
In order to begin dataset generation, you need to specify the reference time range or stream.
- To generate a T-dataset::
- d = Dataset(cdb, t1=start, t2=end, dt=tchange)
- To generate an X-dataset::
- d = Dataset(cdb,”mystream”, i1=start, i2=end)
Note that everywhere you insert a stream name, you are also free to insert Stream objects or even Merge queries. The Dataset query in ConnectorDB supports merges natively for each field.
The only “special” field in this query is the “posttransform”. This is a special transform to run on the entire row of data after the all of the interpolations complete.
addStream(stream, interpolator='closest', t1=None, t2=None, dt=None, limit=None, i1=None, i2=None, transform=None, colname=None)¶
Adds the given stream to the query construction. Additionally, you can choose the interpolator to use for this stream, as well as a special name for the column in the returned dataset. If no column name is given, the full stream path will be used.
addStream also supports Merge queries. You can insert a merge query instead of a stream, but be sure to name the column:
d = Dataset(cdb, t1=time.time()-1000,t2=time.time(),dt=10.) d.addStream("temperature","average") d.addStream("steps","sum") m = Merge(cdb) m.addStream("mystream") m.addStream("mystream2") d.addStream(m,colname="mycolumn") result = d.run()
Runs the dataset query, and returns the result
param_stream(cdb, params, stream)¶